Jon Jagger
jon@jaggersoft.com
Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Notes DownloadECMA-334 C# Language Specificationpreviousnextprevious at this levelnext at this level 8 Language Overviewprevious at this levelnext at this level 8.7 Classesprevious at this levelnext at this level 8.7.3 MethodsA method is a member that implements a computation or action that can be performed by an object or class. Methods have a (possibly empty) list of formal parameters, a return value (unless the method's return-type is void), and are either static or non-static. Static methods are accessed through the class. Non-static methods, which are also called instance methods, are accessed through instances of the class. The example
using System;  
public class Stack  
{  
   public static Stack Clone(Stack s) {...}  
   public static Stack Flip(Stack s) {...}  
   public object Pop() {...}  
   public void Push(object o) {...}  
   public override string ToString() {...}  
   ...  
}  
class Test  
{  
   static void Main() {  
      Stack s = new Stack();  
      for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++)  
      s.Push(i);  
      Stack flipped = Stack.Flip(s);  
      Stack cloned = Stack.Clone(s);  
      Console.WriteLine("Original stack: " + s.ToString());  
      Console.WriteLine("Flipped stack: " + flipped.ToString());  
      Console.WriteLine("Cloned stack: " + cloned.ToString());  
   }  
}  
shows a Stack that has several static methods (Clone and Flip) and several instance methods (Pop, Push, and ToString).
Methods can be overloaded, which means that multiple methods may have the same name so long as they have unique signatures. The signature of a method consists of the name of the method and the number, modifiers, and types of its formal parameters. The signature of a method does not include the return type. The example
using System;  
class Test  
{  
   static void F() {  
      Console.WriteLine("F()");  
   }  
   static void F(object o) {  
      Console.WriteLine("F(object)");  
   }  
   static void F(int value) {  
      Console.WriteLine("F(int)");  
   }  
   static void F(ref int value) {  
      Console.WriteLine("F(ref int)");  
   }  
   static void F(int a, int b) {  
      Console.WriteLine("F(int, int)");  
   }  
   static void F(int[] values) {  
      Console.WriteLine("F(int[])");  
   }  
   static void Main() {  
      F();  
      F(1);  
      int i = 10;  
      F(ref i);  
      F((object)1);  
      F(1, 2);  
      F(new int[] {1, 2, 3});  
   }  
}  
shows a class with a number of methods called F. The output produced is
F()  
F(int)  
F(ref int)  
F(object)  
F(int, int)  
F(int[])  
{ JSL }
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