Jon Jagger
jon@jaggersoft.com
Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Notes DownloadECMA-334 C# Language Specificationpreviousnextprevious at this levelnext at this level 4 Definitions Paragraph 11 For the purposes of this ECMA Standard, the following definitions apply. 2 Other terms are defined where they appear in italic type or on the left side of a syntax rule. 3 Terms explicitly defined in this ECMA Standard are not to be presumed to refer implicitly to similar terms defined elsewhere. 4 Terms not defined in this ECMA Standard are to be interpreted according to ISO/IEC 2382.1. 5 Mathematical symbols not defined in this ECMA Standard are to be interpreted according to ISO 31.11. Paragraph 21 Application -refers to an assembly that has an entry point (§10.1). 2 When an application is run, a new application domain is created. 3 Several different instantiations of an application may exist on the same machine at the same time, and each has its own application domain. Paragraph 31 Application domain -an entity that enables application isolation by acting as a container for application state. 2 An application domain acts as a container and boundary for the types defined in the application and the class libraries it uses. 3 Types loaded into one application domain are distinct from the same type loaded into another application domain, and instances of objects are not directly shared between application domains. 4 For instance, each application domain has its own copy of static variables for these types, and a static constructor for a type is run at most once per application domain. 5 Implementations are free to provide implementation-specific policy or mechanisms for the creation and destruction of application domains. Paragraph 41 Argument -an expression in the comma-separated list bounded by the parentheses in a method or instance constructor call expression. 2 It is also known as an actual argument. Paragraph 51 Assembly -refers to one or more files that are output by the compiler as a result of program compilation. 2 An assembly is a configured set of loadable code modules and other resources that together implement a unit of functionality. 3 An assembly may contain types, the executable code used to implement these types, and references to other assemblies. 4 The physical representation of an assembly is not defined by this specification. 5 Essentially, an assembly is the output of the compiler. Paragraph 61 Behavior -external appearance or action. Paragraph 71 Behavior, implementation-defined -unspecified behavior where each implementation documents how the choice is made. Paragraph 81 Behavior, undefined -behavior, upon use of a nonportable or erroneous construct or of erroneous data, for which this ECMA Standard imposes no requirements. 2 [Possible handling of undefined behavior ranges from ignoring the situation completely with unpredictable results, to behaving during translation or execution in a documented manner characteristic of the environment (with or without the issuance of a diagnostic message), to terminating a translation or execution (with the issuance of a diagnostic message)]. Paragraph 91 Behavior, unspecified -behavior where this ECMA Standard provides two or more possibilities and imposes no further requirements on which is chosen in any instance. Paragraph 101 Class library -refers to an assembly that can be used by other assemblies. 2 Use of a class library does not cause the creation of a new application domain. 3 Instead, a class library is loaded into the application domain that uses it. 4 For instance, when an application uses a class library, that class library is loaded into the application domain for that application. 5 If an application uses a class library A that itself uses a class library B, then both A and B are loaded into the application domain for the application. Paragraph 111 Diagnostic message -a message belonging to an implementation-defined subset of the implementation's output messages. Paragraph 121 Error, compile-time -an error reported during program translation. Paragraph 131 Exception -an error condition that is outside the ordinary expected behavior. Paragraph 141 Implementation -particular set of software (running in a particular translation environment under particular control options) that performs translation of programs for, and supports execution of methods in, a particular execution environment. Paragraph 151 Namespace -a logical organizational system that provides a way of presenting program elements that are exposed to other programs. Paragraph 161 Parameter -a variable declared as part of a method, instance constructor, or indexer definition, which acquires a value on entry to that method. 2 It is also known as formal parameter. Paragraph 171 Program -refers to one or more source files that are presented to the compiler. 2 Essentially, a program is the input to the compiler. Paragraph 181 Program, valid -a C# program constructed according to the syntax rules and diagnosable semantic rules. Paragraph 191 Program instantiation -the execution of an application. Paragraph 201 Recommended practice -specification that is strongly recommended as being aligned with the intent of the standard, but that may be impractical for some implementations. Paragraph 211 Source file -an ordered sequence of Unicode characters. 2 Source files typically have a one-to-one correspondence with files in a file system, but this correspondence is not required. Paragraph 221 Unsafe code -code that is permitted to perform such lower-level operations as declaring and operating on pointers, performing conversions between pointers and integral types, and taking the address of variables. 2 Such operations provide functionality such as permitting interfacing with the underlying operating system, accessing a memory-mapped device, or implementing a time-critical algorithm. Paragraph 231 Warning, compile-time -an informational message reported during program translation, that is intended to identify a potentially questionable usage of a program element.
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