Jon Jagger
Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Notes DownloadECMA-334 C# Language Specificationpreviousnextprevious at this levelnext at this level 17 Classesprevious at this levelnext at this level 17.9 Operatorsprevious at this levelnext at this level 17.9.3 Conversion operators Paragraph 11 A conversion operator declaration introduces a user-defined conversion (§13.4), which augments the pre-defined implicit and explicit conversions. Paragraph 21 A conversion operator declaration that includes the implicit keyword introduces a user-defined implicit conversion. 2 Implicit conversions can occur in a variety of situations, including function member invocations, cast expressions, and assignments. 3 This is described further in §13.1. Paragraph 31 A conversion operator declaration that includes the explicit keyword introduces a user-defined explicit conversion. 2 Explicit conversions can occur in cast expressions, and are described further in §13.2. Paragraph 41 A conversion operator converts from a source type, indicated by the parameter type of the conversion operator, to a target type, indicated by the return type of the conversion operator. 2 A class or struct is permitted to declare a conversion from a source type S to a target type T provided all of the following are true: Paragraph 51 From the second rule it follows that a conversion operator must convert either to or from the class or struct type in which the operator is declared. [Example: For example, it is possible for a class or struct type C to define a conversion from C to int and from int to C, but not from int to bool. end example] Paragraph 61 It is not possible to redefine a pre-defined conversion. 2 Thus, conversion operators are not allowed to convert from or to object because implicit and explicit conversions already exist between object and all other types. 3 Likewise, neither the source nor the target types of a conversion can be a base type of the other, since a conversion would then already exist. Paragraph 71 User-defined conversions are not allowed to convert from or to interface-types. 2 In particular, this restriction ensures that no user-defined transformations occur when converting to an interface-type, and that a conversion to an interface-type succeeds only if the object being converted actually implements the specified interface-type. Paragraph 81 The signature of a conversion operator consists of the source type and the target type. 2 (Note that this is the only form of member for which the return type participates in the signature.) 3 The implicit or explicit classification of a conversion operator is not part of the operator's signature. 4 Thus, a class or struct cannot declare both an implicit and an explicit conversion operator with the same source and target types. [Note: In general, user-defined implicit conversions should be designed to never throw exceptions and never lose information. If a user-defined conversion can give rise to exceptions (for example, because the source argument is out of range) or loss of information (such as discarding high-order bits), then that conversion should be defined as an explicit conversion. end note] [Example: In the example
using System;  
public struct Digit  
   byte value;  
   public Digit(byte value) {  
      if (value < 0 || value > 9) throw new ArgumentException();  
      this.value = value;  
   public static implicit operator byte(Digit d) {  
      return d.value;  
   public static explicit operator Digit(byte b) {  
      return new Digit(b);  
the conversion from Digit to byte is implicit because it never throws exceptions or loses information, but the conversion from byte to Digit is explicit since Digit can only represent a subset of the possible values of a byte. end example]
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